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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 84-91

B-mode ultrasound assessment of carotid intima–media thickness among adult diabetics and normal adults in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria

1 Department of Radiology Yobe State University Teaching Hospital, Yola, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology and Imaging, Federal Medical Centre, Yola, Nigeria
3 Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
4 Department of Radiology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria
5 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
6 Department of Histopathology, Federal Medical Centre, Yola, Nigeria
7 Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Yola, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
M Yunusa Dahiru
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Federal Medical Centre, Yola
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JRMT.JRMT_13_20

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Background: The carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) has been established as an early predictor of general arteriosclerosis in patients with diabetes. However, there is a paucity of information on CIMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) in healthy patients and in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as diabetics, hypertension, and obesity in our environment. The aim of this study was to compare the CIMT in adult patients with diabetes and normal subjects in our institution in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted over a period of 8 months (from April 2015 to December 2015) at Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, on 105 adult diabetic patients and 105 normal adults aged 18 years and above. The CCA was scanned with a PHILIPS HD-9 ultrasound scanner equipped with Doppler facility using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Three measurements of the CIMT were obtained at 1 cm proximal to the right and left carotid bulbs and the mean value of the measurements was recorded. Results: The age range of the diabetics comprising 54% of males and 46% of females was 23–79 years, while the range of control group comprising of 53% of males and 47% of females was 18–68 years. The overall mean CIMT (MCIMT) was 0.97 ± 0.4 mm and 0.73 ± 0.1 mm for diabetics and nondiabetic subjects, respectively. MCIMT was significantly higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetic subjects (P = 0.000). In diabetics, overall MCIMT values were 0.96 ± 0.2 mm and 0.91 ± 0.2 mm on the right and left sides, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two sides (P = 0.000), while in the normal group, the overall MCIMT values on the right and left sides were 0.75 ± 0.1 mm and 0.73 ± 0.1 mm, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two sides (P = 0.021). Furthermore, CIMT correlated positively with age in both diabetic and control groups. Conclusion: This study has shown a statistically significant increase in CIMT in diabetics compared to nondiabetics and age shows a significant correlation with CIMT. Reference value for CIMT in nondiabetic subjects in Northeastern Nigeria has been obtained.

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