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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-11

Computerized tomographic patterns of intracranial tumors in Northwest Nigeria

1 Department of Radiology, 465 Nigerian Air Force Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Suleiman Aliyu
Department of Radiology, 465 Nigerian Air Force Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JRMT.JRMT_34_20

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Background: Brain tumors are among the most challenging disorders encountered worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for the management of these tumors. Different patterns of distribution of intracranial tumors have been described in various regions of the world, with previous reports in Africa suggesting that brain tumors were uncommon. This relative rarity has been attributed to low detection due to lack of neurosurgical and advanced neuroimaging facilities previously, a limitation that has now been gradually surmounted with the establishment of neurosurgical and more advanced radiological facilities on the continent. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of intracranial tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan seen in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria, Northwest Nigeria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of CT images of 60 patients of all age groups diagnosed with brain tumors between January 2015 and December 2019. The CT scans of the brain were performed using General Electric Hi-Speed NX/i dual-slice CT scanner (Germany). The age, sex, diagnosis using the WHO histological, and the pattern on CT were recorded, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0, ARMONK, NY, USA 2013. Only cases with conclusive histology diagnosis were analyzed. This study was approved by the Health Research Ethics Committee of the ABUTH, Zaria (approval Number ABUTH/HREC/M36/2015), on January 23, 2015, before commencement. Results: In the 60 cases of brain tumors studied, patients' age range was 6 months–65 years, with a peak in the fourth and fifth decades of life (accounting for 38.3%). The mean age was 33.04 years ± 17.73 standard deviation. There was equal occurrence among males and females. About 96.7% of the tumors were primary and 3.7% secondary tumors; meningioma (MEN) (45%) was the most common tumor seen. About 45% of the cases were extra-axial, while 55% were intra-axial. Most (81.67%) of the tumors were located in the supratentorial region, while 18.33% were infratentorial. Headache (75%) and visual impairment (53.3%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Conclusion: MEN was the most common tumor type seen in this study. This corroborates most studies in Nigeria and other African countries but contradicts some studies among Caucasians that showed glioma to be more common. This affirms that racial factors and environmental influence could have significant effects on the pattern of diseases. The results of this study will provide useful data on the pattern of brain tumors in this environment.

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