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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2022
Volume 3 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 39-73

Online since Saturday, December 17, 2022

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A comparative analysis of thoracic ultrasound with radiography in the detection of lung pathologies among patients in intensive care units p. 39
Ogenyi Obande, Janet Adetinuke Akinmoladun, B Babatunde Osinaike, M Atinuke Agunloye, O Ayotunde Ogunseyinde
Introduction: Chest X-ray (CXR) is a common study in intensive care unit (ICU) and to a lesser extent, chest computed tomography. Both studies use ionizing radiation. Bedside ultrasound (US) avoids exposure to ionizing radiation or potentially hazardous movement of the patient. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, comparative study of B-mode thoracic ultrasound (TUS) with CXR in the detection of lung pathologies in ICU patients. M-mode was further used in suspected pneumothorax (PTX). Patients with clinical suspicion or diagnosis of lung pathologies were recruited. CXR with portable machine and TUS using mobile US machine were done. Results: Seventy patients were recruited; 38 (54.3%) were female. Pleural effusion was detected in 17 patients, 15 (88.2%) by TUS and 11 (64.7%) by CXR. TUS and CXR detected lung consolidations in 11 (84.6%) and 9 (69.2%) patients, respectively. PTX was seen by CXR in 6 (85.7%) patients and 5 (71.4%) were seen on TUS. Both modalities diagnosed equal numbers of alveolar and interstitial edemas. Conclusion: Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in imaging diagnosis of lung pathologies by TUS and CXR. However, TUS detected more pleural effusion and consolidations; hence, it may be considered an alternative in the management of pediatric patients and pregnant women to avoid ionizing radiation.
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Knowledge and perception of the practice of nuclear medicine among physicians in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto p. 45
Ahmed Rufai Isah, Ibrahim Abdulqadir, Habibullah Adamu, Usman Malami Aliyu, Sofiyullah Abubakar, Garba Haruna Yunusa, Zabah Muhammad Jawa
Background: The management of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, since the year 2011 set the machinery to establish a Department of Nuclear Medicine (NM). The objective of this study is to evaluate the physicians' knowledge and perception of the practice of NM, with a view of improving these when NM services commence at UDUTH, Sokoto. Methods: An anonymized electronic questionnaire was used to conduct this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire had three sections, comprising responders' demography, basic knowledge of NM, and physicians' perception of the practice of NM. The data were collated in an Excel spreadsheet (version 16.53, 2019), and the IBM SPSS package (version 27, 2020) was used to conduct the descriptive statistical tests. Results: Seventy-six doctors participated in the study. Of this figure, females were 19 (24.7%), whereas 57 (75.3%) were males. In terms of designation, there were 2 (2.6%) house officers, 22 (28.6%) registrars, 25 (32.5%) senior registrars, and 27 (35.1%) consultants. Fifty-one (67.1%) respondents clearly understand what NM is, while 18 (23.7%) wrongly identified NM as the field of medicine that uses machines that produces radiation to diagnose and treat certain illnesses, 2 (2.6%) respondents did not respond, while 5 (6.6%) were not sure. Only three (2.6%) physicians were able to correctly identify the rays/particles that are used in NM (beta rays, gamma rays, alpha rays, and positron), the majority of 25 (32.9%) identified gamma rays as the only rays used in NM. Conclusion: The study shows low awareness on what NM is about and the perception on the role of NM in clinical practice is also poor. This has demonstrated the need to enlighten them through lecture and seminar presentations. There is a need for the NM centers in the country to collaborate with the referring clinicians with a view to create awareness on the role of NM services and where these services can be accessed.
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Prevalence and sonographic patterns of uterine fibroid among women of reproductive age in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria p. 50
Chigoze Blessed Ukaonu, Philip O Ibinaiye, Sunday Cornelius Owoeye, Meshack Rufus Birma, Alex Angbalaga, Abraham Ekma Ogbu
Background: Uterine leiomyoma represents a major public health problem and is regarded as the most common benign gynecologic tumors affecting premenopausal women. It is associated with considerable morbidity and hospitalization. Objectives: This research was carried out to establish the prevalence and sonographic characteristics of uterine leiomyoma as well as the histological diagnosis of the tumor among Nigerian women of reproductive age living in Jos, Plateau State. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study, in which 295 women of the age between 20 years and 50 years were recruited randomly after obtaining informed consent from each woman. Abdominopelvic ultrasound scan was performed on each participant using a GE Logic 5 machine fitted with 3.5-MHz probe with emphasis on the location, number, and characterization of uterine leiomyoma(s); thereafter, transvaginal ultrasound scan using 7.5-MHz frequency probe was done for the subjects that have uterine fibroid for better delineation and location of the mass(es), followed by sonohysterography where necessary to ascertain its/their location(s). The histologic findings/diagnosis of the tumor postsurgery for those who had myomectomy in course of the study was correlated to the sonographic diagnosis. The number of fibroid nodules, location in the uterus, sonographic patterns, classification, and histological diagnosis were assessed descriptively and inferentially using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS20). The results were presented in the form of tables and charts. Results: The mean age for the participants was 32.66 ± 7.66 years ranging from 21 to 50 years, and the mean age of the sonographically confirmed fibroid cases was 34.99 ± 6.79 years with a range of 21–48 years. This study indicated that 28.33% (83/295) of the subjects had fibroid; the highest prevalence (49.7%) of the fibroid case occurred among women in their fourth decade and the lowest (8.4%) at the extremes of reproductive age. A significant positive association (P = 0.043) between nulliparity and the presence of fibroid was noted. The average number of fibroid nodules and volume of the largest nodule were estimated as 2.76 ± 1.93 and 344 ± 69.24 cm3, respectively; 57.80% of the fibroid were intramural with only 9.6% been submucosal. Most (86.70%) of the fibroids were located within the uterine corpus and the most common (38.6%) sonographic pattern of the nodules was hypoechoic. The histological findings postmyomectomy for those that had surgery in the course of the study showed cellular leiomyoma to be the most common (95.23%) type; there was no evidence of malignant transformation. Conclusion: The prevalence and sonographic pattern of leiomyoma among women of reproductive age in Jos have been assessed; it was found that characteristics of the fibroid and its location determine the clinical presentation and possibly the reproductive outcome of the patient; this could help in appropriate management of cases in the North Central or the whole nation.
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Breast cancer in relation to gynecological risk factors among women in Southeast Nigeria p. 57
Uzoamaka Rufina Ebubedike, Brenda Chijioke I. Nwammuo, Eric Okechukwu Umeh, Chinekwu Skye Nwosu, Kelechi Collins Elendu, Chijioke Chukwuemeka Umeokafor
Background: Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is developed by mutual impact of genetic risk factors and environmental factors. Identification of these factors may enhance the ability to prevent the disease by permitting better-focused health education and other preventive strategies. Objectives: The objective of the study is to determine the association between breast cancer and gynecological risk factors. Methodology: One hundred and twenty consenting females who were referred from the Surgical Outpatient Department and underwent mammography in the Radiology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, from 2018 to 2020. Women who were 40 years and above as well as those below 40 years with positive family history of breast cancer presenting with palpable breast mass were included in the study. Results: The mean age was 47.36 ± 10.67 years and the most frequent age range was 41–50 years while the least frequency fell in the above 70 years of age group. Women with age of menarche at 11–13 years had higher association with breast cancer than those whose menarche occurred at later age. Those who attained menopause at a later age had higher association with breast cancer. Women whose age at first confinement was 25 years or less had higher association too. Further, higher incidence of breast cancer was recorded in women with parity >3. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference was found between these gynecological risk factors as well as body mass index and breast cancer.
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A case report of transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in Benin City p. 63
Blessing Ose-Emenim Igbinedion, Festus Oghanina Ehigiamusoe, Anthony Osayomwanbor Ogbeide
Prostate cancer is a common worldwide male tumor which can lead to death. Screening methods have not been optimal in detecting this malignancy. Hence, the need to obtain tissue samples for histology is paramount for early cancer detection. Transrectal (TR) prostatic biopsy was introduced in 1937 and it is still practiced in many centers worldwide. However, it has its limitations and complications. As such the transperineal (TP) approach to prostate biopsy which is also an old method have been developed to obviate some of the problems of TR. TP is fast gaining ground in many centers and appears to be a better option to TR. We report the first TP prostatic biopsy that was done in Benin City, Edo State, South-South geopolitical zone.
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An ordeal of multiple pathologies in a 45-year-old homemaker in a developing country: Synchronous cervical and breast cancer p. 66
Hadiza Theyra-Enias, Sam Kwis, Jummai Desiree Jimeta-Tuko
Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females and a leading cause of cancer death. On the other hand, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among females worldwide. In the less developed countries, it is the second most diagnosed cancer and third leading cause of cancer death in women. Synchronous malignancy of the breast and cervix is rare due to different etiological factors. Comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes are frequent findings in patients with cancer. In a study in this environment, diabetes mellitus was the second most common comorbidity in the elderly cancer patients. This is the case report of a 45-year-old homemaker with cervical cancer and incidental finding of a synchronous breast cancer.
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Frontal region focal meningioma mimicking ischemic stroke: A case report and review of the literature p. 70
Charles Oshevire Ayara, Tagbo Tobechukwu Marchie
Meningiomas typically present with gradual onset of symptoms but on rare occasions may present mimicking an ischemic stroke. The case of a 46-year-old homemaker with a right frontal region focal meningioma mimicking an ischemic stroke is presented here. A review of the literature was carried out, and the important role of radiological evaluation in resolving the diagnostic puzzle and various treatment options are also discussed.
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