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Umbilical artery doppler reference indices in normal pregnancy
Owoicho Daniel Okochi, Aliyu Yabagi Isah, Hadijat Oluseyi Kolade-Yunusa, Habiba Ibrahim Abdullahi
July-December 2021, 2(2):79-85
Background: Umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) studies offer a noninvasive method of indirectly assessing the fetal and uteroplacental circulation. However, the umbilical artery (UA) velocimetry reference currently in use was established in developed countries and derived from pregnant women that are likely to have had different biophysical characteristics. There is a need to develop an UA index nomogram for the indigenous pregnant population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the UAD reference indices among women with normal singleton pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 422 women with uncomplicated pregnancies who attended the antenatal clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital with pregnancy ages between 28 and 40 weeks' gestation. The systolic and diastolic (S/D) ratio, the resistance index (RI), and the pulsatility index (PI) of the UA were obtained. Results: The mean UAD showed a progressive decrease with increasing fetal gestational age with S/D ratio, PI, and RI being 3.05 ± 0.28, 1.07 ± 0.1, and 0.68 ± 0.05 at 28 weeks and 2.10 ± 0.17, 0.73 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.04 at 40 weeks, respectively. Estimated reference values for relatively normal singleton fetuses S/D ratio, PI, and RI were 2.98, 1.03, and 0.67 and 2.07, 0.72, and 0.52 at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively. The S/D ratio (r = ‒0.741, P ≤ 0.002), PI (r = ‒0.694, P ≤ 0.001), and RI (r = ‒0.366, P ≤ 0.001) were significantly different from the existing reference value of 3.02 (S/D ratio), 1.05 (PI), and 0.62 (RI) and 2.18 (S/D ratio), 0.82 (PI), and 0.52 (RI). The respective existing values were at 28 weeks and 40 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: The UA index nomogram obtained from this study showed significantly lower values compared with the existing values, and therefore, it is advocated for use among African pregnant population.
  3,698 94 -
Installation, commissioning, and performance evaluation of Bhabhatron-II TAW – An Indian-made telecobalt unit
Shashi Bhushan Sharma, Gautam Sarma, Mithu Barthakur, Pranjal Goswami, Bhaveshwar Yadav, Shachindra Goswami
January-June 2020, 1(1):38-42
Aim: The aim of this study was to report commissioning and performance evaluation of Bhabhatron-II TAW (an Indian made machine). Materials and Methods: Commissioning comprises of following quality assurance (QA) (a) electrical QA, (b) mechanical QA, (c) radiation QA and (d) survey of installation. Electrical QA were done for various components of the unit for its functionality. Mechanical QA were done and the measured data were verified as per guidelines of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India and vendor's specified values. Cylindrical ionization chamber, electrometer, ready pack films, water phantom, thermometer and barometer were used during radiation QA and survey of installation procedures. Moreover, the data so generated were fed to treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation and also kept in proper tabular manner for clinical use. Results: Couch and collimator parameters were found to comply the tolerance criteria. Source strength of 172.2 roentgen per minute at 1 meter (RMM) was measured with an absolute dose rate of 225.76 cGy/min at dmax for 10cm x 10cm field size at normal treatment distance (NTD). Shutter timer error of 0.004 min was measured and incorporated in the clinical data. A maximum of 3.66 % variation was noted for 300 (15W × 20) physical wedge transmission factor between measured and vendor specified value. Radiation leakage through beam limiting device (BLD) and outside BLD were found to be within the limits prescribed by AERB. Conclusion: Commissioning is a prerequisite process after installation of a radiation therapy machine for medical purpose. Bhabhatron-II machine has several advantages over other telecobalt machine. Features like high source storage capacity of machine head, one pair of asymmetric jaw, closure of jaws to 0 cm x 0 cm during radiation emergency and presence of one motorized wedge filter makes it unique and yet cost effective telecobalt machine..
  3,327 190 -
Artificial intelligence in healthcare; its knowledge, practice, and perception among medical personnel in the developing economy
Ebbi Donald Robinson
January-June 2020, 1(1):13-19
Background: The world is remodeling with the emergence of the most revolutionary technological advancement called artificial intelligence (AI). The study is to evaluate the knowledge, practice, and perception of AI in healthcare among care providers. Methodology: A descriptive, prospective design was adopted over a period of 8 months using a well-structured, self-administered questionnaire administered to medical practitioners. A total of 510 questionnaires out of 525 administered were retrieved immediately after completion. The responses were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 in line with the study objectives. The data were presented orderly in frequency tables and charts. Results: Male constituted 59.02%, while the female was 40.98%. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the respondents is 45.88 ± 10.26 years. 21.18% of the respondents are consultants, 42.35% are resident doctors while 9.22% are medical officers and 27.25% constituting interns. 94.31% of the respondents know about AI, and the internet has been the main source (89.32%). Majorities know that AI is applied in radiology (96.50%) and surgery (94.05%). Four hundred and thirty-seven (91.81%) responded that there was no form of AI in their facilities and are willing to be trained. Two hundred and sixty-eight (55.83%) agreed that AI would improve healthcare services, while 43.66% of the respondents thought that it will eliminate the human factor. Poor knowledge of information technology, absence of legislation, and promotion of self-medication were the anticipated challenges. Conclusion: Little is known about AI use in pathology, drug-dispensing, and nursing care. There is no AI practice in this environment, but physicians are willing to embrace AI. The fear of eliminating the human factor and cause job loss remained a concern. Training and legislation to regulate AI use are recommended to improve the knowledge, practice, and perception of AI among medical personnel in the developing world.
  2,985 233 1
Radiotherapy practice in the time of COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown: Experience from a resource-constrained center of Northeast India
Gautam Sarma, Jyotiman Nath, Partha Pratim Medhi, Mouchumee Bhattacharyya, Apurba Kumar Kalita
January-June 2020, 1(1):3-7
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, of China in December 2019 was declared as a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. As a measure to break the chain of transmission of the disease, the Government of India declared nationwide lockdown from March 24, 2020. This pandemic and nationwide lockdown impacted the healthcare system, and it became extremely difficult to carry out cancer-related services as both the patients and healthcare providers are at increased risk of infection. As a resource-constrained and high-volume patient center, we have formulated few sets of policies based on the available evidence which helped us to carryout patient care services in this time of crisis. Our policies will help other resource-constrained cancer hospitals to formulate their own policy.
  2,461 356 -
Radiographic manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia: Initial experience from an epicenter in North-West, Nigeria
Yusuf Lawal, Mustapha Shuaibu Hikima, Mohammad Abba Suwaid, Mohammed Kabir Saleh, Anas Ismail, Mansur Adamu Yahuza, Abdu Hamisu Dambatta, Kabir Isyaku, Donzomga Donga Sambo, Mukhtar Muhammad
July-December 2020, 1(2):61-66
Background: COVID-19, a zoonotic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is responsible for the pandemic of 2020. Despite the availability and usefulness of chest radiographs (CXR) in diagnosis and monitoring of suspected as well as infected patients with COVID-19, there is paucity of studies about imaging findings in COVID-19 from Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Aim: This study aims to describe the findings and correlates of chest radiographic appearances in COVID-19 pneumonia at Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at radiology units of four radiology diagnostic facilities that were very active during the peak period of the pandemic in Kano metropolis. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection and also underwent chest radiographic examinations at these facilities were included. The findings considered in the evaluation were the presence or absence and the type of pulmonary or pleural lesions/abnormality, and their distribution; including their association with demographics and clinical presentations. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0. Results: Of 125 patients, 98 (78.4%) were male. The mean age was 57.3 ± 12 years. One hundred and one (80.8%) of them had abnormal chest radiographic findings. These patients showed significant higher occurrences of anosmia than those with normal CXRs (P < 0.05). The occurrence of ground-glass opacity in both lower zones was significantly seen in 43 (62.3%) patients between 40 and 60 years and in 40 (85%) of those older than 60. Anosmia and age were respectively the only symptoms that independently predict if the COVID-19 patient may likely present with the abnormal CXRs or not (0.175 [0.057–0.542] P = 0.002; 3.7 [1.423–9.622] P = 0.007). Conclusions: Majority of our patients presents with abnormalities on CXRs. Older age, anosmia were the major predictors of chest radiographic abnormalities, which were mainly bilateral asymmetric lower zones ground glass opacities.
  2,615 188 1
Plain radiography versus computed tomography scan in evaluation of adults with chronic rhinosinusitis in Zaria, Nigeria
Andrew Enigie Brai, Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Dotiro Chitumu, Iliyasu Y Shuaibu
January-June 2020, 1(1):8-12
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be a debilitating illness with major socioeconomic costs and decreased workplace productivity. Till date, paranasal sinus (PNS) radiography continues to be the primary imaging modality for diagnosing CRS in most developing countries. Computed tomography (CT) scan – the gold standard imaging modality is either unavailable or unaffordable in these regions. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare plain radiographic and CT scan findings of the PNSs in adults with CRS. Subjects and Methods: After initial clinical evaluation and rhinoscopy, consenting patients were assessed using both plain radiography (PR) and direct coronal CT scan of the PNSs. Results: One hundred and eighteen (68 males and 50 females) adults with a mean age of 39.4 years were involved in this study. The percentage agreement between PR and CT for sinus abnormalities was <80%. Using CT scan as the gold standard, PR had the highest diagnostic value in the maxillary sinus with sensitivity and specificity of 76.4% and 89.7%, respectively. Sensitivities and specificities for the ethmoid (50.0% and 76.2%), frontal (35.3% and 89.3%), and sphenoid sinuses (17.1% and 96.1%), respectively, were also recorded. Conclusion: In the diagnosis of chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis, correlation between PR and CT scan was good with high agreement. However, for chronic ethmoidal, frontal, and sphenoidal sinusitis, PR demonstrated poor agreement and weak correlations with CT scan. It is recommended that noncontrast coronal CT scan should replace paranasal PR as the initial imaging modality for evaluating adults with CRS where facilities are available.
  2,533 188 -
Pattern and outcome of admission of cancer patients at radiation oncology ward university college hospital Ibadan Nigeria
Ayorinde Folasire, Sharif Folorunso, Ajibike Orekoya, Chiamaka Ehiedu, Adeniyi Olabumuyi, Atara Ntekim
July-December 2020, 1(2):67-71
Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. Approximately 70% of cancer mortalities occur in low- and middle-income countries like Nigeria largely due to late presentation. Majority of cancer deaths are largely preventable, accessible to screening and early detection. The care of cancer patients on admission is generally known to be time consuming and challenging. Reports on pattern and outcome of admission in cancer patients are scarce in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to provide data on the pattern and outcome of admission on a ward that is solely for the care of cancer patients. Methodology: This is a one-year retrospective study of cancer patients admitted between June 1st 2018 to May 31st 2019. The patients' information was extracted from the ward's admission book and duplicate of the death certificate. Data collected were analysed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25. Results: A total of 318 admissions were recorded with female preponderance. More than half of the patients admitted were 40 to 59 years old. Majority of the patients 225 (70.8%) came from south western part of the country followed by the south south 55(17.3%). The commonest sites of primary disease were breast 81(25.5%), cervix 74 (23%), head and neck 43 (13.5%), gastrointestinal 49 (12.6%) and genitourinary cancers 23 (7.2%). Most of the patients admitted have stage 4 disease. 127 (39.9%) of the patients died on admission while 191 (60.1%) were discharged. There was statistically significant association between stage 4 disease and increased mortality (p=0.026). Breast cancers accounts for 40(31.5%) of mortality, cervix cancer 31(24.4%), head and neck cancer 16 (12.6%), genitourinary cancer 9 (7.1%), gastrointestinal cancer 6 (4.7%) and skin cancer 6(4.7%). Conclusion: Breast and cervical cancer were the commonest cases admitted. About 40% of the admitted died on the ward. The patients were mostly female in their productive ages.
  2,528 192 -
Radiology request form: Evaluating its complete filling in South-South, Nigeria
Ebbi Donald Robinson, Olukumni Yetunde Ijeruh, Woroma Wonodi, Rufus Abam, Chidinma Wekhe
January-June 2021, 2(1):18-23
Introduction: Radiology request form (RRF) is a medical referral to a radiologist requesting input concerning the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients, and intervention where necessary. The RRF usually provides information on the patient(s) and the investigation(s) being requested. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, in which request forms were retrospectively reviewed over a period of 6 months in the Radiology Department of the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital. A total of 1131 request forms filled by medical doctors were analyzed to ascertain the degree of completeness of filling the forms. The data were collated and analyzed using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. The results were expressed in simple percentages, frequencies, and presented in tables, charts, and graphs. Results: Ultrasonography was the most requested radiologic investigation (55.4%), while X-ray and computed tomography scan account for 41.4% and 1.1%, respectively. Majority of the forms had adequately entered date of request (97.7%) and required investigation and patient's names (99.6%). Patient's age was appropriately entered in 51.9% of cases, while 34.1% kept the space blank. Clinical information was indicated in 50.8% of the forms, while 97.2% did not include history of patient's allergy as regards the use of radiopharmaceutical agents. The patient's consultant and resident's doctor names were appropriately entered in 72.1% and 81.7% of the request forms, respectively. Signature authentication by the resident doctor is available in 13.2% of the request forms. Conclusion: It was observed that majority of the RRFs were not completely and appropriately filled; thus, complete information regarding the patient is not provided to the radiologist to enhance report accuracy. Clinical information if adequately provided can improve the quality of patient management, follow-up, training, and research.
  2,484 165 1
Role of transrectal ultrasound and prostate-specific antigen density in assessment of clinically suspicious prostate cancer
Muhammad Habeeb Mahe, Timothy Yakubu Umoru, Lawan Hassan Adamu, Suleiman Tanimu Sa'ad, Philip O Ibinaiye
July-December 2020, 1(2):72-78
Background: Prostate cancer (CaP) is a major health concern with rising incidence especially in Black African populations. Digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound scan (TRUS) of the prostate, and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) values are useful adjuncts in early diagnosis of CaP. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the role of TRUS and PSAD and their correlation with histopathologic findings in patients with DRE features suspicious of CaP. Patients and Methods: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 100 male patients with suspected CaP based on DRE and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values recruited from the urology clinic and wards of the hospital during 2018–2019. All patients had clinical evaluation, biodata documentation, and grayscale TRUS while PSA values were determined using immunoassay method. PSAD was calculated by dividing the PSA value by the TRUS prostate volume. P ≤ 0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 66.70 ± 9.60 years with age range of 44–90 years. TRUS features of heterogeneous echotexture (n = 37; 37%), regular outline (n = 73; 73%), and intact capsule (n = 77; 77%) showed the highest frequencies. TRUS alone (P = 0.189, 0.214 and 0.265 for echopattern, outline, and capsular integrity, respectively) was not statistically significant in differentiating between benignity and malignancy. Total mean PSAD was 0.63 ± 0.32 ng/ml/cm3 while the highest mean PSAD was observed in patients with irregular glandular outline (0.74 ± 0.17 ng/ml/cm3) and in those with solitary hypoechoic nodules (0.73 ± 0.61 ng/ml/cm3). There was statistically significant correlation between PSAD values and outcome of prostate biopsy (P = 0.031). Conclusion: PSAD showed a positive correlation with outcome of prostate biopsy as well as greater predictability of CaP than TRUS which was not statistically significant in differentiating between benignity and malignancy.
  2,427 161 -
Role of magnetic resonance imaging in defining rectal anatomical landmarks and primary rectal cancer evaluation
Kenis Shedrack Felangu, Akims Shattah, Ubaka Edwin Akanegbu, Omofuma Ighodalo Oisenele, Ibinaiye Philip Oluleke
January-June 2021, 2(1):1-5
In contemporary practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a useful tool in evaluating rectal and perirectal anatomy. It encourages accurate local staging of rectal cancer and has overall improved presurgical evaluation and planning, leading to reduce local recurrence and more sphincter conserving procedures. This article aims at providing a concise review of rectal MRI technique and anatomy and to relate this to local staging and surgical management. Locally generated images in our practice were reviewed and images that best depict different anatomical landmarks and pathologies were selected and presented. Also, PubMed database was searched for relevant and contemporary existing literature on the subject.
  2,398 150 -
A titan in radiology takes his exit
Donald A Nzeh
July-December 2020, 1(2):59-60
  2,285 200 -
B-mode ultrasound assessment of carotid intima–media thickness among adult diabetics and normal adults in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria
Ibrahim Aishatu Mohammed, M Yunusa Dahiru, H Umar Umar, U Usman Aminu, T Sa'ad Suleiman, Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, M Dahiru Aminu, Yusuf Hadiza
July-December 2020, 1(2):84-91
Background: The carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) has been established as an early predictor of general arteriosclerosis in patients with diabetes. However, there is a paucity of information on CIMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) in healthy patients and in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as diabetics, hypertension, and obesity in our environment. The aim of this study was to compare the CIMT in adult patients with diabetes and normal subjects in our institution in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted over a period of 8 months (from April 2015 to December 2015) at Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, on 105 adult diabetic patients and 105 normal adults aged 18 years and above. The CCA was scanned with a PHILIPS HD-9 ultrasound scanner equipped with Doppler facility using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Three measurements of the CIMT were obtained at 1 cm proximal to the right and left carotid bulbs and the mean value of the measurements was recorded. Results: The age range of the diabetics comprising 54% of males and 46% of females was 23–79 years, while the range of control group comprising of 53% of males and 47% of females was 18–68 years. The overall mean CIMT (MCIMT) was 0.97 ± 0.4 mm and 0.73 ± 0.1 mm for diabetics and nondiabetic subjects, respectively. MCIMT was significantly higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetic subjects (P = 0.000). In diabetics, overall MCIMT values were 0.96 ± 0.2 mm and 0.91 ± 0.2 mm on the right and left sides, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two sides (P = 0.000), while in the normal group, the overall MCIMT values on the right and left sides were 0.75 ± 0.1 mm and 0.73 ± 0.1 mm, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two sides (P = 0.021). Furthermore, CIMT correlated positively with age in both diabetic and control groups. Conclusion: This study has shown a statistically significant increase in CIMT in diabetics compared to nondiabetics and age shows a significant correlation with CIMT. Reference value for CIMT in nondiabetic subjects in Northeastern Nigeria has been obtained.
  2,277 150 -
Normative time averaged mean maximal velocities value using imaging transcranial Doppler ultrasound in stable sickle cell disease patients in Zaria
Halimat Mono Mohammed, N Bello, I Aliyu, M Zubair, MZ Ibrahim, S Lawal, R Muhammad
July-December 2020, 1(2):92-96
Introduction: Middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocimetry in sickle cell patients using noninvasive transcranial ultrasound scan is an important index for predicting stroke. Stroke is one of the most feared clinical complications of sickle cell anemia. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) enables early detection of arterial abnormalities to institute primary preventive measures. Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of the study were to determine the normal range of time-averaged mean maximal velocities (TAMMAX) in the MCA on imaging TCD ultrasound in stable sickle cell patients in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 in the Radiology Department of ABUTH, Zaria. Stable sickle cell anemic children numbering 75 within the age of 2–16 years were recruited for the study. Approval was granted by the ethical committee of ABUTH. The TAMMAX of the MCA was measured by Doppler ultrasound which is done with the patient lying supine, the probe is placed on the temporal bone after application of the gel and the MCA assessed on grayscale, color, and spectral Doppler. The results were recorded in the datasheet. Data Analysis: All measurements were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and a confidence interval of 95% was used. TAMMAX was classified based on the STOP criteria. Findings were presented in the form of summarizing indices (tables and charts). Means and standard deviations were computed. Results: A total of 75 patients were included in the final data with a mean age of 8.5 years and male-to-female ratio was 1.04:1. The mean TAMMAX of sickle cell subjects was 84.32 cm/s and 80.31 cm/s in the right and left MCA, respectively. Conclusion: The TAMMAX of stable sickle cell disease patients all fell below 170 cm/s and so the detection of abnormal velocities during the scan is an indicator of the likelihood of stroke and so preventive measures can be instituted early.
  2,288 138 -
Adult brain computed tomography pattern among seizure patients in Kaduna: A 24-month review of findings
Tokan Silas Baduku, Abdulkadir Musa Tabari
July-December 2020, 1(2):79-83
Background: Seizures are intracranial neuronal disorders that are observed globally but often poorly investigated and managed in developing countries. The advent of modern diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, is highly important in patient's workup toward diagnoses and subsequent management. Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the pattern of brain CT findings in adult patients presenting with seizure disorders in Kaduna and its environs. Materials and Methods: This is a 24-month retrospective and descriptive study carried out on 81 patients who presented between January 2017 and December 2018 at the Department of Radiology, National Ear Care Centre (NECC), Kaduna. Most of these patients with seizure disorders were normally referred to this center from within the state and from the neighboring states, and only those who satisfied the study criteria were included. Results: A total of 81 cases were reviewed (representing 8.4% of brain scans in NECC within the period of study). Males dominated with 64.2%, while those within the 20–29 years of age group constituted the highest number of patients who presented with seizures (30.9%). Imaging findings were normal in 26.7% of the patients. Conclusion: This shows the male preponderance of adult with seizures, with those in the third decade of life most affected. Headache and hemiparesis are the most common presenting complaints. In our environment, headache was the highest presenting symptom, followed closely by hemiparesis, while cerebral hypodensity was the most frequent finding.
  2,210 159 -
Assessment of image quality of plain abdominal radiographs at a northwestern Nigeria tertiary hospital
Hassan Maidugu Musa, Suleiman Lawal, Aliyu Galadima, Abubakar G Mathew, Aliyu Sadiya Musa, Halimat Shadiat A. Umar, Chibuike Onyesoh
January-June 2020, 1(1):33-37
Background: Image quality has a significant effect on the accuracy of radiographic diagnosis, and without optimal image quality many vital information might be missed and that will affect patient management negatively. This work is aimed at assessing the image quality of plain abdominal radiographs, which is one of the most frequent emergency radiographic examinations done, using the radiographic technical parameters and the guidelines of image quality criteria set by the European Commission (EC) as the measuring criteria for the development of quality assurance program. Materials and Methods: A prospective survey of anteroposterior erect and supine plain abdominal radiographs of adult patients produced at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital from August 2019 to October 2019 was conducted assessing its quality based on the radiographic technical parameters and the guideline set by the EC for assessing image quality using a data capture sheet. Results: Plain abdominal radiographs of 92 adults comprising, 55.4% male, 44.6% female, 42.4% erect, and 57.6% supine, were evaluated. The finding of the study revealed that image quality criteria on radiographic technical parameters were optimal in 2%, suboptimal in 50%, and poor in 48%. The image quality based on the EC guideline result shows that only 3% of the reviewed plain abdominal radiograph were optimum, 63.0% were suboptimal, and 34% were poor. Furthermore, the study proves that gender has no significant effect (P = 0.985) on the image quality based on radiographic technical parameter, whereas image quality based on the EC guideline is significantly influenced by gender (P = 0.023). Conclusion: The quality of plain abdominal radiographs produced at this center during this period was abysmal; hence, rigorous quality control programs, familiarization of the radiographers with the guidelines for assessing image quality, and total replacement of obsolete equipment need to be instituted.
  2,113 158 -
Caval variations of the septum pellucidum in A North-Central Nigerian population: A retrospective computed tomographic study
Charles Chibunna Ani, Kuleve Othniel Iyua, Yetunde Folake Taiwo, Danaan J Shilong
January-June 2020, 1(1):48-52
Background: The septum pellucidum (SP) and its cystic variations are occasionally seen as midline structures during computed tomography (CT) brain investigation of individuals. There is no documented evidence of the pattern and frequency of caval variations of the SP in our environment. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of caval variations of the SP in a North-Central Nigerian population using CT scan. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the presence of the caval variations on CT brain scans acquired between January 2011 and January 2013 in a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. A value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of caval variations of the SP in all CTsan of the brainwas 3.5% (n = 49). The male-to-female ratio was 2.3:1 (34:15). The indication for CT brain scan with the highest frequency of caval variations was head injury (21; 42.8%). Higher distribution of caval variation (15; 30.6%) was seen among patients in the 20–39 age group. Forty-six (93.3%) individuals had only cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and 3 (6.1%) had coexistence of CSP and cavum vergae (CV). CV alone or a cavum veli interpositum were not encountered. The variations observed were each seen more in the male patients: CSP (31; 67.4%) and CSP + CV (3; 100%); P = 0.821. While CSP alone was most distributed among the third and fourth decades age group (14; 30.4%), CSP + CV was found more among the fifth and sixth decades age group (2; 66.7%); P = 0.190. Conclusion: Caval variations of the SP are seen in North Central Nigeria with a prevalence of 3.5%. The distribution of the variations was observed more among males and varied insignificantly with different age groups.
  2,103 144 -
Sonographic assessment of the prevalence of gall bladder abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria
Mohammed Kabir Saleh, Aliyu Mohammed El-Habeeb, Kabiru Isyaku
January-June 2020, 1(1):25-32
Background: The gall bladder is one of the abdominal organs that are frequently affected in sickle cell disease. This results from chronic hemolysis with its accelerated bilirubin turnover, which leads to a high incidence of gall bladder diseases. Ultrasonography is a cost-effective and noninvasive modality that permits a quick evaluation of the gall bladder in patients with sickle cell anemia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gall bladder in children with sickle cell anemia using ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of radiology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano (AKTH). One hundred children with sickle cell anemia and age and sex-cross-matched 100 healthy controls aged 15 years and below were recruited for this study, (in accordance with what is obtainable at AKTH, Kano). The examination was performed using an ultrasound machine equipped with a 3.5 MHz curvilinear ultrasound transducer. The gall bladder changes that were assessed include cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, biliary sludge, and volume. Results: From the 100 children scanned, there were 68 (68%) males and 32 (32%) females in each of the study groups, with an age range of 2–15 years. The mean age of the cases and controls was 9.63 ± 3.79 years and 8.49 ± 3.39 years, respectively (P = 0.024). Among the patients; 19 (19%) had cholecystitis, 9 (9%) had gallstones and 8 (8%) had biliary sludge, with no detectable abnormality in the controls. Conclusion: The ultrasonographic prevalence of gallbladder abnormality is higher in patients with sickle cell anemia when compared to normal healthy controls showing increased prevalence with age.
  2,104 140 -
Prevalence of portal vein thrombosis in patients with chronic liver disease using triphasic computed tomography scan as diagnostic modality: A study in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
Samuel Moses Danjem, AJ Salaam, U Iroha, AE Gabkwet, EO Igoh, YF Taiwo, HO Kolade-Yunusa
January-June 2020, 1(1):43-47
Background: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is one of the complications of chronic liver disease (CLD), and the prevalence varies from country to country as well as the method utilized in determining the presence of the thrombosis. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the prevalence of PVT in patients with CLD in our locality using triphasic computed tomography as a diagnostic modality. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The triphasic computed tomography scan of the abdomen of 121 patients from January 2019 to April 2020 was retrieved and reviewed for the presence of PVT. Results: The mean age for the study population was 54.4 ± 13.4 years with age range of 22–100 years. Out of the 121 patients, 46 patients had PVT constituting the prevalence of 38.0%. The PVT is more in males (80.4%) than females (19.6). The thrombosis is more in the age group of 41–50 years. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of PVT in our locality possibly because patients present in the later stage of CLD. PVT is associated with ascites and multiple hepatic masses.
  2,071 139 -
Computerized tomographic brain findings in HIV/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment presenting with central nervous system manifestations in Gombe, North-East, Nigeria
Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Sefiya Adebanke Olarinoye-Akorede, Suleiman T Sa'ad, Nasiru M Tahir, Sahkir Muhammad Balogun, Aminu U Usman, Abubakar Ali-Gombe, Sani Garko, Dahiru M Yunsa, Timothy Y Umoru, Bello O Usman, Umar Abdulaziz
January-June 2020, 1(1):20-24
Background: Despite the current availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital, neurologic complications of HIV still occur. Aim: The aim of this study was to document brain computed tomography (CT) findings in HIV patients receiving HAART who developed neurological complications and to examine the relationship of these findings with CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with central nervous system symptoms out of 200 HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART at the HIV Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, were retrospectively studied. The findings were reviewed alongside their clinical features, CD4+ count, and HAART history. Results: CT findings were positive in 12 (60%) of the patients, while no abnormality was seen in 8 (40%) of the patients. The most common brain abnormality was atrophy (35%). Two out of 5 patients (40%) with CD4 counts >200 had abnormal CT findings compared with 9 out of 14 patients (64%) with CD4 counts <200 cells who had CT abnormalities. This finding was statistically significant (R = 0.864, P = 0.00). Conclusion: There is a high incidence of neurological complications and positive brain CT scans among the patients who defaulted from HAART treatment and with CD4 cell counts of <200 cells/μL.
  1,998 154 -
Setting up a sustainable interventional radiology practice in a resource-limited environment: Steps to note, challenges, and strategies
Omodele A Olowoyeye, Kofo O Soyebi, Olubukola Omidiji, Adekunle Adeyomoye, Nicholas Kayode Irurhe, Hammed Ninalowo
July-December 2021, 2(2):43-47
Interventional radiology (IR) is a developing sub-specialty in Nigeria. Although IR equipment and consumables are expensive, the benefit to patients on the long run compensates for the financial costs. There are various measures that should be put in place to ensure a safe IR practice. There are associated challenges that may be peculiar to different types of hospitals in our environment. This paper focuses on the steps to consider when setting up an IR practice in a resource-limited teaching hospital setting. It also highlights possible challenges and strategies to overcome such challenges.
  1,960 175 -
B-mode ultrasonographic findings of carotid artery in stroke
Anthony Epga Gabkwet, Pam Moses Gwom, Emmanuel O Igoh, Yetund Taiwo, Abdul Salaam, Samuel Danjem
July-December 2020, 1(2):97-102
Background: Stroke is a major medical disorder caused by an abrupt interruption of blood supply to the brain resulting in loss of neurological function. B-mode ultrasonography is a readily available test that is employed to visualize the extracranial carotid arteries implicated as a major source of emboli to cerebral arteries. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the pattern of carotid artery disease using B-mode ultrasonography in adults with computed tomography scan-confirmed stroke in Jos University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Radiology Department of Jos University Teaching Hospital. The study population was made up of 120 consenting stroke patients where a structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information. A GE Medical System Logiq 5 Expert with 10 MHz linear probe was used to examine the extracranial carotid arteries from their origin to the angle of the mandible. Results: One hundred and twenty patients were recruited comprising 63 males (52.5%) and 57 females (47.5%). Three-fifth of the patients 72 (60.0%) had intima–media thickness of >0.9 mm seen in the right common and internal carotid arteries in 56 (46.7%) and 65 (54.2) patients, respectively, and left common and internal carotid arteries in 69 (57.5%) and 66 (55.0%) patients, respectively. Plaques were seen in 58 (48.0%) patients. Eleven (19%) had smooth-surfaced plaques while 33 (57.0%) had irregular/ulcerated surfaced plaques which were unilateral in 21 (36.0%) and bilateral in 12 (21.0%) patients. Mixed (smooth and irregular/ulcerated) and bilateral were seen in 14 (24.0%) patients. Conclusion: Carotid artery diseases are a significant finding in stroke patients. These findings showed the importance of B-mode ultrasonographic examination of the extracranial carotid arteries as key in predicting patients at risk of stroke development.
  1,991 136 -
COVID-19 pandemic and a new reality for radiologists in the workplace
Donald Nzeh
January-June 2020, 1(1):1-2
  1,946 177 -
An audit of ocular trauma and role of B-scan in the management of posterior chamber pathologies, in a northwestern Nigerian hospital
Suleiman Lawal, Sefiya Banke Olarinoye-Akorede, Muhammad Zaria Ibrahim, Bello Usman, Joseph Bako Igashi
January-June 2020, 1(1):53-57
Background: Traumatic ocular injuries comprise about 2%–6% of body trauma, with blunt trauma accounting for 97% of cases. The most popular pathway of injury includes motor vehicular accidents, recreational accidents, industrial accidents, falls, and violent traumas. Ultrasound (US) provides a suitable imaging option with its low cost,Movability for bedside examination, and its use of nonionizing radiation advantages. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of ocular trauma and the role of B-scan ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in posterior chamber pathologies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the US unit of the Department of Radiology in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, involving records between February 2017 and March 2020. Results: A total of 85 individual patients reports amounting to 123 globes were assessed, 77 (90.6%) were males. They were aged between 8 and 69 years, with a preponderance of the cases in the age group 20–39 years. Majority were of the Hausa/Fulani ethnic stalk (73%) and Muslims comprised 92% of the population. The individuals mainly presented either as a case of assault or vehicular accident comprising 47% apiece. Vitreous hemorrhage occurred most frequently, involving 83 eyes and comprising 67.5% of all the 123 individual globe pathologies. Conclusion: Ocular US has proved to be a valuable and effective technique in assessing the traumatized globe and should be the first-line radiological investigation in case of ocular trauma.
  1,884 137 -
Computerized tomographic patterns of intracranial tumors in Northwest Nigeria
Suleiman Aliyu, Phillip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Nuhu Dung Chom, Abdullahi Jimoh, Muhammed Zaria Ibrahim, Okafor Emeka Kingsley
January-June 2021, 2(1):6-11
Background: Brain tumors are among the most challenging disorders encountered worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for the management of these tumors. Different patterns of distribution of intracranial tumors have been described in various regions of the world, with previous reports in Africa suggesting that brain tumors were uncommon. This relative rarity has been attributed to low detection due to lack of neurosurgical and advanced neuroimaging facilities previously, a limitation that has now been gradually surmounted with the establishment of neurosurgical and more advanced radiological facilities on the continent. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of intracranial tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan seen in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria, Northwest Nigeria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of CT images of 60 patients of all age groups diagnosed with brain tumors between January 2015 and December 2019. The CT scans of the brain were performed using General Electric Hi-Speed NX/i dual-slice CT scanner (Germany). The age, sex, diagnosis using the WHO histological, and the pattern on CT were recorded, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0, ARMONK, NY, USA 2013. Only cases with conclusive histology diagnosis were analyzed. This study was approved by the Health Research Ethics Committee of the ABUTH, Zaria (approval Number ABUTH/HREC/M36/2015), on January 23, 2015, before commencement. Results: In the 60 cases of brain tumors studied, patients' age range was 6 months–65 years, with a peak in the fourth and fifth decades of life (accounting for 38.3%). The mean age was 33.04 years ± 17.73 standard deviation. There was equal occurrence among males and females. About 96.7% of the tumors were primary and 3.7% secondary tumors; meningioma (MEN) (45%) was the most common tumor seen. About 45% of the cases were extra-axial, while 55% were intra-axial. Most (81.67%) of the tumors were located in the supratentorial region, while 18.33% were infratentorial. Headache (75%) and visual impairment (53.3%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Conclusion: MEN was the most common tumor type seen in this study. This corroborates most studies in Nigeria and other African countries but contradicts some studies among Caucasians that showed glioma to be more common. This affirms that racial factors and environmental influence could have significant effects on the pattern of diseases. The results of this study will provide useful data on the pattern of brain tumors in this environment.
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A radiologist in West Africa succumbs to the COVID-19 pandemic
Donald Nzeh
January-June 2020, 1(1):58-58
  1,739 129 -