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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 25, 2020

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Artificial intelligence in healthcare; its knowledge, practice, and perception among medical personnel in the developing economy
Ebbi Donald Robinson
January-June 2020, 1(1):13-19
Background: The world is remodeling with the emergence of the most revolutionary technological advancement called artificial intelligence (AI). The study is to evaluate the knowledge, practice, and perception of AI in healthcare among care providers. Methodology: A descriptive, prospective design was adopted over a period of 8 months using a well-structured, self-administered questionnaire administered to medical practitioners. A total of 510 questionnaires out of 525 administered were retrieved immediately after completion. The responses were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 in line with the study objectives. The data were presented orderly in frequency tables and charts. Results: Male constituted 59.02%, while the female was 40.98%. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the respondents is 45.88 ± 10.26 years. 21.18% of the respondents are consultants, 42.35% are resident doctors while 9.22% are medical officers and 27.25% constituting interns. 94.31% of the respondents know about AI, and the internet has been the main source (89.32%). Majorities know that AI is applied in radiology (96.50%) and surgery (94.05%). Four hundred and thirty-seven (91.81%) responded that there was no form of AI in their facilities and are willing to be trained. Two hundred and sixty-eight (55.83%) agreed that AI would improve healthcare services, while 43.66% of the respondents thought that it will eliminate the human factor. Poor knowledge of information technology, absence of legislation, and promotion of self-medication were the anticipated challenges. Conclusion: Little is known about AI use in pathology, drug-dispensing, and nursing care. There is no AI practice in this environment, but physicians are willing to embrace AI. The fear of eliminating the human factor and cause job loss remained a concern. Training and legislation to regulate AI use are recommended to improve the knowledge, practice, and perception of AI among medical personnel in the developing world.
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COVID-19 pandemic and a new reality for radiologists in the workplace
Donald Nzeh
January-June 2020, 1(1):1-2
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A radiologist in West Africa succumbs to the COVID-19 pandemic
Donald Nzeh
January-June 2020, 1(1):58-58
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Plain radiography versus computed tomography scan in evaluation of adults with chronic rhinosinusitis in Zaria, Nigeria
Andrew Enigie Brai, Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Dotiro Chitumu, Iliyasu Y Shuaibu
January-June 2020, 1(1):8-12
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be a debilitating illness with major socioeconomic costs and decreased workplace productivity. Till date, paranasal sinus (PNS) radiography continues to be the primary imaging modality for diagnosing CRS in most developing countries. Computed tomography (CT) scan – the gold standard imaging modality is either unavailable or unaffordable in these regions. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare plain radiographic and CT scan findings of the PNSs in adults with CRS. Subjects and Methods: After initial clinical evaluation and rhinoscopy, consenting patients were assessed using both plain radiography (PR) and direct coronal CT scan of the PNSs. Results: One hundred and eighteen (68 males and 50 females) adults with a mean age of 39.4 years were involved in this study. The percentage agreement between PR and CT for sinus abnormalities was <80%. Using CT scan as the gold standard, PR had the highest diagnostic value in the maxillary sinus with sensitivity and specificity of 76.4% and 89.7%, respectively. Sensitivities and specificities for the ethmoid (50.0% and 76.2%), frontal (35.3% and 89.3%), and sphenoid sinuses (17.1% and 96.1%), respectively, were also recorded. Conclusion: In the diagnosis of chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis, correlation between PR and CT scan was good with high agreement. However, for chronic ethmoidal, frontal, and sphenoidal sinusitis, PR demonstrated poor agreement and weak correlations with CT scan. It is recommended that noncontrast coronal CT scan should replace paranasal PR as the initial imaging modality for evaluating adults with CRS where facilities are available.
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Computerized tomographic brain findings in HIV/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment presenting with central nervous system manifestations in Gombe, North-East, Nigeria
Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye, Sefiya Adebanke Olarinoye-Akorede, Suleiman T Sa'ad, Nasiru M Tahir, Sahkir Muhammad Balogun, Aminu U Usman, Abubakar Ali-Gombe, Sani Garko, Dahiru M Yunsa, Timothy Y Umoru, Bello O Usman, Umar Abdulaziz
January-June 2020, 1(1):20-24
Background: Despite the current availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital, neurologic complications of HIV still occur. Aim: The aim of this study was to document brain computed tomography (CT) findings in HIV patients receiving HAART who developed neurological complications and to examine the relationship of these findings with CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with central nervous system symptoms out of 200 HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART at the HIV Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, were retrospectively studied. The findings were reviewed alongside their clinical features, CD4+ count, and HAART history. Results: CT findings were positive in 12 (60%) of the patients, while no abnormality was seen in 8 (40%) of the patients. The most common brain abnormality was atrophy (35%). Two out of 5 patients (40%) with CD4 counts >200 had abnormal CT findings compared with 9 out of 14 patients (64%) with CD4 counts <200 cells who had CT abnormalities. This finding was statistically significant (R = 0.864, P = 0.00). Conclusion: There is a high incidence of neurological complications and positive brain CT scans among the patients who defaulted from HAART treatment and with CD4 cell counts of <200 cells/μL.
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Sonographic assessment of the prevalence of gall bladder abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria
Mohammed Kabir Saleh, Aliyu Mohammed El-Habeeb, Kabiru Isyaku
January-June 2020, 1(1):25-32
Background: The gall bladder is one of the abdominal organs that are frequently affected in sickle cell disease. This results from chronic hemolysis with its accelerated bilirubin turnover, which leads to a high incidence of gall bladder diseases. Ultrasonography is a cost-effective and noninvasive modality that permits a quick evaluation of the gall bladder in patients with sickle cell anemia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gall bladder in children with sickle cell anemia using ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of radiology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano (AKTH). One hundred children with sickle cell anemia and age and sex-cross-matched 100 healthy controls aged 15 years and below were recruited for this study, (in accordance with what is obtainable at AKTH, Kano). The examination was performed using an ultrasound machine equipped with a 3.5 MHz curvilinear ultrasound transducer. The gall bladder changes that were assessed include cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, biliary sludge, and volume. Results: From the 100 children scanned, there were 68 (68%) males and 32 (32%) females in each of the study groups, with an age range of 2–15 years. The mean age of the cases and controls was 9.63 ± 3.79 years and 8.49 ± 3.39 years, respectively (P = 0.024). Among the patients; 19 (19%) had cholecystitis, 9 (9%) had gallstones and 8 (8%) had biliary sludge, with no detectable abnormality in the controls. Conclusion: The ultrasonographic prevalence of gallbladder abnormality is higher in patients with sickle cell anemia when compared to normal healthy controls showing increased prevalence with age.
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Assessment of image quality of plain abdominal radiographs at a northwestern Nigeria tertiary hospital
Hassan Maidugu Musa, Suleiman Lawal, Aliyu Galadima, Abubakar G Mathew, Aliyu Sadiya Musa, Halimat Shadiat A. Umar, Chibuike Onyesoh
January-June 2020, 1(1):33-37
Background: Image quality has a significant effect on the accuracy of radiographic diagnosis, and without optimal image quality many vital information might be missed and that will affect patient management negatively. This work is aimed at assessing the image quality of plain abdominal radiographs, which is one of the most frequent emergency radiographic examinations done, using the radiographic technical parameters and the guidelines of image quality criteria set by the European Commission (EC) as the measuring criteria for the development of quality assurance program. Materials and Methods: A prospective survey of anteroposterior erect and supine plain abdominal radiographs of adult patients produced at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital from August 2019 to October 2019 was conducted assessing its quality based on the radiographic technical parameters and the guideline set by the EC for assessing image quality using a data capture sheet. Results: Plain abdominal radiographs of 92 adults comprising, 55.4% male, 44.6% female, 42.4% erect, and 57.6% supine, were evaluated. The finding of the study revealed that image quality criteria on radiographic technical parameters were optimal in 2%, suboptimal in 50%, and poor in 48%. The image quality based on the EC guideline result shows that only 3% of the reviewed plain abdominal radiograph were optimum, 63.0% were suboptimal, and 34% were poor. Furthermore, the study proves that gender has no significant effect (P = 0.985) on the image quality based on radiographic technical parameter, whereas image quality based on the EC guideline is significantly influenced by gender (P = 0.023). Conclusion: The quality of plain abdominal radiographs produced at this center during this period was abysmal; hence, rigorous quality control programs, familiarization of the radiographers with the guidelines for assessing image quality, and total replacement of obsolete equipment need to be instituted.
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Installation, commissioning, and performance evaluation of Bhabhatron-II TAW – An Indian-made telecobalt unit
Shashi Bhushan Sharma, Gautam Sarma, Mithu Barthakur, Pranjal Goswami, Bhaveshwar Yadav, Shachindra Goswami
January-June 2020, 1(1):38-42
Aim: The aim of this study was to report commissioning and performance evaluation of Bhabhatron-II TAW (an Indian made machine). Materials and Methods: Commissioning comprises of following quality assurance (QA) (a) electrical QA, (b) mechanical QA, (c) radiation QA and (d) survey of installation. Electrical QA were done for various components of the unit for its functionality. Mechanical QA were done and the measured data were verified as per guidelines of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India and vendor's specified values. Cylindrical ionization chamber, electrometer, ready pack films, water phantom, thermometer and barometer were used during radiation QA and survey of installation procedures. Moreover, the data so generated were fed to treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation and also kept in proper tabular manner for clinical use. Results: Couch and collimator parameters were found to comply the tolerance criteria. Source strength of 172.2 roentgen per minute at 1 meter (RMM) was measured with an absolute dose rate of 225.76 cGy/min at dmax for 10cm x 10cm field size at normal treatment distance (NTD). Shutter timer error of 0.004 min was measured and incorporated in the clinical data. A maximum of 3.66 % variation was noted for 300 (15W × 20) physical wedge transmission factor between measured and vendor specified value. Radiation leakage through beam limiting device (BLD) and outside BLD were found to be within the limits prescribed by AERB. Conclusion: Commissioning is a prerequisite process after installation of a radiation therapy machine for medical purpose. Bhabhatron-II machine has several advantages over other telecobalt machine. Features like high source storage capacity of machine head, one pair of asymmetric jaw, closure of jaws to 0 cm x 0 cm during radiation emergency and presence of one motorized wedge filter makes it unique and yet cost effective telecobalt machine..
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Prevalence of portal vein thrombosis in patients with chronic liver disease using triphasic computed tomography scan as diagnostic modality: A study in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
Samuel Moses Danjem, AJ Salaam, U Iroha, AE Gabkwet, EO Igoh, YF Taiwo, HO Kolade-Yunusa
January-June 2020, 1(1):43-47
Background: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is one of the complications of chronic liver disease (CLD), and the prevalence varies from country to country as well as the method utilized in determining the presence of the thrombosis. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the prevalence of PVT in patients with CLD in our locality using triphasic computed tomography as a diagnostic modality. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The triphasic computed tomography scan of the abdomen of 121 patients from January 2019 to April 2020 was retrieved and reviewed for the presence of PVT. Results: The mean age for the study population was 54.4 ± 13.4 years with age range of 22–100 years. Out of the 121 patients, 46 patients had PVT constituting the prevalence of 38.0%. The PVT is more in males (80.4%) than females (19.6). The thrombosis is more in the age group of 41–50 years. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of PVT in our locality possibly because patients present in the later stage of CLD. PVT is associated with ascites and multiple hepatic masses.
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Caval variations of the septum pellucidum in A North-Central Nigerian population: A retrospective computed tomographic study
Charles Chibunna Ani, Kuleve Othniel Iyua, Yetunde Folake Taiwo, Danaan J Shilong
January-June 2020, 1(1):48-52
Background: The septum pellucidum (SP) and its cystic variations are occasionally seen as midline structures during computed tomography (CT) brain investigation of individuals. There is no documented evidence of the pattern and frequency of caval variations of the SP in our environment. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of caval variations of the SP in a North-Central Nigerian population using CT scan. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the presence of the caval variations on CT brain scans acquired between January 2011 and January 2013 in a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. A value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of caval variations of the SP in all CTsan of the brainwas 3.5% (n = 49). The male-to-female ratio was 2.3:1 (34:15). The indication for CT brain scan with the highest frequency of caval variations was head injury (21; 42.8%). Higher distribution of caval variation (15; 30.6%) was seen among patients in the 20–39 age group. Forty-six (93.3%) individuals had only cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and 3 (6.1%) had coexistence of CSP and cavum vergae (CV). CV alone or a cavum veli interpositum were not encountered. The variations observed were each seen more in the male patients: CSP (31; 67.4%) and CSP + CV (3; 100%); P = 0.821. While CSP alone was most distributed among the third and fourth decades age group (14; 30.4%), CSP + CV was found more among the fifth and sixth decades age group (2; 66.7%); P = 0.190. Conclusion: Caval variations of the SP are seen in North Central Nigeria with a prevalence of 3.5%. The distribution of the variations was observed more among males and varied insignificantly with different age groups.
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An audit of ocular trauma and role of B-scan in the management of posterior chamber pathologies, in a northwestern Nigerian hospital
Suleiman Lawal, Sefiya Banke Olarinoye-Akorede, Muhammad Zaria Ibrahim, Bello Usman, Joseph Bako Igashi
January-June 2020, 1(1):53-57
Background: Traumatic ocular injuries comprise about 2%–6% of body trauma, with blunt trauma accounting for 97% of cases. The most popular pathway of injury includes motor vehicular accidents, recreational accidents, industrial accidents, falls, and violent traumas. Ultrasound (US) provides a suitable imaging option with its low cost,Movability for bedside examination, and its use of nonionizing radiation advantages. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of ocular trauma and the role of B-scan ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in posterior chamber pathologies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the US unit of the Department of Radiology in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, involving records between February 2017 and March 2020. Results: A total of 85 individual patients reports amounting to 123 globes were assessed, 77 (90.6%) were males. They were aged between 8 and 69 years, with a preponderance of the cases in the age group 20–39 years. Majority were of the Hausa/Fulani ethnic stalk (73%) and Muslims comprised 92% of the population. The individuals mainly presented either as a case of assault or vehicular accident comprising 47% apiece. Vitreous hemorrhage occurred most frequently, involving 83 eyes and comprising 67.5% of all the 123 individual globe pathologies. Conclusion: Ocular US has proved to be a valuable and effective technique in assessing the traumatized globe and should be the first-line radiological investigation in case of ocular trauma.
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Radiotherapy practice in the time of COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown: Experience from a resource-constrained center of Northeast India
Gautam Sarma, Jyotiman Nath, Partha Pratim Medhi, Mouchumee Bhattacharyya, Apurba Kumar Kalita
January-June 2020, 1(1):3-7
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, of China in December 2019 was declared as a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. As a measure to break the chain of transmission of the disease, the Government of India declared nationwide lockdown from March 24, 2020. This pandemic and nationwide lockdown impacted the healthcare system, and it became extremely difficult to carry out cancer-related services as both the patients and healthcare providers are at increased risk of infection. As a resource-constrained and high-volume patient center, we have formulated few sets of policies based on the available evidence which helped us to carryout patient care services in this time of crisis. Our policies will help other resource-constrained cancer hospitals to formulate their own policy.
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